Whiting is intending to figure out the wage gaps between men and women Inequality is the existence of unequal opportunities and rewards for different social positions or statuses within a group or society. Unequal Pay for Equal Work Author: Melanie Varnell Throughout the history of the world, discrimination in all forms has been a constant battle; whether its race, gender, religion, beliefs, appearance or anything else that makes one person different from another, it’s happening every day. This paper presents an analysis of the gender wage gap in the highly regulated Australian labour market. This open texture has allowed the courts in many instances to transmit conservative interpretations which preserve the status quo. The GPG is partly the result of women taking work that accommodates their familial obligations, instead of career-enhancing work that match their skills and experience. This low appreciation of feminine tasks is a serious issue given that women’s employment remain highly concentrated in clerical, sales and service jobs. His books include Higher Education in America, Our Underachieving Colleges and Universities in the Marketplace.This article is excerpted from The Struggle to Reform our Colleges, being published this week by Princeton University Press. However these positive developments were contained when the Federal Government ‘covered the field’ in 2005, replacing them with ineffective principles that hinged on proof of discrimination. III FACTORS INFLUENCING GENDER PAY INEQUITY. Essay 28 August 2019 is Equal Pay Day in Australia so that, at least for one day, the fact that women do not earn as much as men for doing the same work will be marked with special attention. This report will explain the main issue of gender income inequality. The Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth) and its equivalent state laws have managed to dispel formal barriers to equality, but largely fails to accommodate women’s differences from men. On average, around 59 additional working days are … We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing service each and every time you place an order. This measure had a limited impact, given that it only applied to instances where ‘work performed by men and women was of the same or a like nature’. The Act’s treatment of systemic disadvantage has been limited and inconsistent. However, determinations of work value gave higher favour to masculinised areas of work, and functions linked with predominantly female industries were underappreciated. It also requires schools to promote inclusion, disability and race equality for all. In Purvis, it was held that there is no DD treatment if an act is based on a characteristic or manifestation of a ground, provided that these are borne by the person. The gender wage gap is a women’s rights issue based on the old-fashioned role of women in society which needs to be fought against and, very minimal, too minimal for there to be a difference in pay. Gaze, Beth,‘Context and Interpretation in Anti-Discrimination’(2002) 26 Melbourne University Law Review 325. Students looking for free, top-notch essay and term paper samples on various topics. Read Text. Rees, Neil, Lindsay, Katherine and Rice, Simon, Australian Anti-Discrimination Law: Text, Cases and Materials (The Federation Press, 2008). However, these arrangements limit women’s ability to excel in the labour market given that most quality positions are structured for ‘ideal workers’ that can operate under full-time hours and without familial pressures. spam or irrelevant messages, We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Who We Are. According to Workplace Gender Equality Agency, the average gender pay gap between full-time men and women increases in accordance to age, when the gap begins to narrow due to reduced income in retirement. National time use studies show that the number of unpaid hours that men and women devote has not changed notably; with women being found to have contributed 65 percent and 64 percent of household activities in 1992 and 1997 respectively. The recent measures to tackle female undervaluation may be transient and its current foundations are unsecured. Gender discrimination and the gender pay gap are still realities that women face on a daily basis. Let a Professional Expert Help You, Ask a professional expert to help you with your text, Give us your email and we'll send you the essay you need, By clicking Send Me The Sample you agree to the terms and conditions of our service. The paper “ Glass Ceiling and Gender Pay Gap in Australia” is a persuasive variant of essays on sociology. From minimum wage jobs to corporate positions, a wage gap between men and women is always present. Smith, Belinda, ‘Fair and Equal in the World of Work: Two Significant Federal Developments in Australian Discrimination Law’ (2010) 23 Australian Journal of Labour Law 199. (2016, Oct 25). The right to equal pay was first entrenched in federal labour law through the adoption of the 1969 and 1972 equal pay principles by Australia’s/n federal industrial tribunal. The Economic Record. Difficulties with measuring productivity in service industries meant that women concentrated in these areas faced problems in productivity-based bargaining. Smith, Belinda, ‘It’s About Time – For A New Regulatory Approach to Equality’(2008) 36 Federal Law Review 117. However the advent of the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) may reaffirm commitments to a test of undervaluation. Show how this may provide a marketing opportunity for an Australian exporter. Specifically, in more concentrated areas such as the American workplace. With Solution Essays, you can get high-quality essays at a lower price. Rubery, Jill, ‘Performance- Related Pay and the Prospects for Gender Pay Equity’ (1995) 32 Journal of Management Studies 637 Smith, Belinda, ‘Not The Baby And The Bathwater: Regulatory Reform For Equality Laws To Address Work-Family Conflict’(2006) 28 Sydney Law Review 689. Glass Ceiling and Gender Pay Gap in Australia - Essay Example. Redman, Ronnit, ‘Litigating for gender equality: The amicus curiae role of the Sex Discrimination Commissioner’ (2004) 10 UNSW Law Journal Forum 15. Smith, Meg, ‘Gender Equity: The Commission’s Legacy and the Challenge for Fair Work Australia’ (2011) 53 Journal of Industrial Relations 647. How much is the gender pay gap costing you? In addition, the uneven and weak state regulation of non-standard casual work, left women, who predominantly do such work, particularly vulnerable after successive phases of neoliberal reform. The judiciary’s tendency to adopt narrow analyses may reflect an ignorance of the impacts of exclusion and disadvantage, given their relatively privileged social positions. Due to the broad nature of the concept, most historians narrow their scope by focusing on a particular time period, a particular country or region, a particular person, group, or individual person, a particular theme, or any combination of those categories. The gender pay gap is the average difference between men women’s gross earnings for the same job. Reasons Behind the Gender Pay Gap (Australia). A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation and Earnings’ (2008) 93 Journal of Applied Psychology 994. Women cannot always conform to male standards and they are punished once they deviate from established norms. Smith, Meg, ‘Limits and Possibilities: Rights-based Discourses in Australian Gender Pay Equity Reform 1969-2007’ (2009) 18 Gender, Work and Organization 180. It found that the unequal remuneration of male and female-dominated occupations had created a gender earnings differential of around 4 percent, or one-third of the gender wage differential. Countries such as the United States and United Kingdom, upon which Australian anti-discrimination laws are based, have stronger laws. Charlesworth, Sara, ‘Striking the Balance or Tipping the Scales? In addition, the scheme did not allow claims by individuals for a single workplace. Gender Pay Gap Essay Australia They obliged and provided me with adraft Gender Pay Gap Essay Australia of the work which I must say was a great piece of writing that impressed my professor as well. Developing an Equal Remuneration Principle under the Fair Work Act’ (2010) 23 Australian Journal of Labour Law 152. Gaze, Beth, ‘Twenty Years of the Sex Discrimination Act: Assessing its Achievements’ (2005) 30 Alternative Law Journal 3. This paper focuses on 3 current trends occurring in the Australian labour market, analysing their causes and effects. The pay gap is stuck at 17.4% and it’s predominantly women that have time out for caring responsibilities. neglects the pay disparity between males and females, which is prevalent in the Australian society. Undervaluation can be proven by showing that current rates of pay are inconsistent with the tribunal’s assessments of work value. hourly wages are substantially higher than women’s in Australia (see Table 1): the mean gender earnings gap amongst fulltime - A product can be defined as an item produced and made available in response to a gap in the market. The current gender pay gap is 17.6 per cent. The comparative worth policy being implemented in recent years may effectively tackle this issue; although at present there are still a significant number of occupations that have yet to benefit from its application. Get a verified expert to help you with Reasons Behind the Gender Pay Gap (Australia), Are You on a Short Deadline? DD arguably only covers blanket exclusions and prejudicial assumptions; although this is not a small area, it does not ensure equality of outcome or resource. In 1963, former United States president, John F. Kennedy passed The Equal Pay … Watson, Ian, ‘Decomposing the Gender Pay Gap in the Australian Managerial Labour Market’ (2010) 13 Australian Journal of Labour Economics 49. Derek Bok is the 300th Anniversary University Research Professor, professor of law and president emeritus of Harvard University. In 1969, this institutionalized sex discrimination in wage determination officially came to an end when the federal industrial tribunal implemented the principle of ‘equal pay for equal work’ in wage-setting. Women in Work Index: Closing the Gender Pay Gap PwC Research The 2018 Women in Work Index takes a look at the drivers of the pay gap across the OECD. Labour laws have had a large influence in the size of the gender pay gap (GPG). According to the Report, Australia ranks 53rd out of 142 countries in reaching gender equality in terms of ‘Political Empowerment’. In this essay, I will focus on gender inequality. Australia’s distinct system of wage-setting has garnered substantial collective benefits for women. Women have continuously been over-represented in part-time employment, with three-quarters of all part-timers being women in August 2011. Gender inequality can be defined as allowing people different opportunities due to perceived differences based solely on issues of gender. Today, the pay gap is largely attributed to the undervaluation of ‘feminised’ work, the influence of women’s primary caring role on career progression, and the managerial glass-ceiling effect. The persistence of the GPG can also be attributed to the existing undervaluation of work provided in female-dominated occupations. Australian Journal of Labour Economics 309. Learn more about the subject of history, which is broadly defined as the study of past events. It has mainly expelled the formal barriers that restricted women’s access to the public arena; however they are expected to conform to existing practices. Pay gap is down 1.1% from last year, but still equates to a difference of about $25,700 a year, Workplace Gender Equality agency says We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. The current analysis follows an approach similar to that of Albrecht et al (2003), in order to investigate how the gender gap evolves throughout the wage distribution, and to test Harbridge, Raymond and Walsh, Pat, ‘Globalisation and Labour Market Deregulation in Australia and New Zealand: Different Approaches, Similar Outcomes’ (2002) 24 Employee Relations 423. The decline of the institutional and legal structure that had provided women some protection has locked pay inequities. However, in recent years labour law has placed an emphasis on the undervaluation of ‘feminised’ work in labour law. Equal Pay Act 1970 Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Race Relations Act 1976 Disability Discrimination Act 1995. : The HREOC Women, Men, As a result of women’s primary caregiver role, they are pushed into compromising between paid and unpaid duties. A recent study found that 65 and 90 percent of the gender pay gap (of 27 percent) in the sample cannot be associated with managerial characteristics and is potentially caused by discrimination. This primary commitment to formal equality is inadequate. This process disadvantaged workers with lower skills and bargaining power. The gender pay gap in society is something thatis deemed ‘distressingly evident’, and continues to steadily control women insociety (McDowell 2014 p.829). Wooden (1999) indicated that upon controlling for individual and job characteristics, the higher concentration of females in an occupation had a significant negative influence on general earnings. Hunter, Rosemary, ‘Mirage of the Shrinking State’(2002) 16 The Australian Feminist Law Journal 53. Knowles, Fiona, ‘Misdirection of Indirect Discrimination’ (2004) 17 Australian Journal of Labour Law 1. Whitehouse, Gillian, ‘Pay Equity Prospects’ (2005) 13 Frontline 12. The wage-fixing principles in the 1970s, has granted immediate collective remedies from industry-wide, award application. I believe that that's a myth because there are laws that were passed decades ago by the government to prevent any type of wage gap or any discrimination related to it.. Its findings supported United Nations Ambassador Emma Watson’s recent claim, at the launch of the ‘HeForShe’ campaign, that ‘No country in the world can yet say they have achieved gender equality’. For example, the article entitled This is what the gender pay gap looks like in eight countries by Kate Whiting, studies pay rates for women/men in Australia, France, Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Singapore, Germany, and the Netherlands. Preston, Alison and Whitehouse, Gillian, ‘Gender Differences in Occupation of Employment within Australia’ (2004) 7 408-427. Lyons, Michael and Smith, Meg, ‘Gender Pay Equity, Wage Fixation and Industrial Relations Reform in Australia: One Step forward, Two Steps Backwards?’ (2007) 30 Employee Relations 4, 7. HIDE THIS PAPER GRAB THE BEST PAPER 97.9% of users find it useful. Research by the Workplace Gender Equality Agency found a 6.1% decline in the number of employers taking action on pay equity. Breaking this stereotype that women are fit for lesser positions than men is important in expanding the selection of qualified workers, creating a more, organization, an understanding of causes and solutions of inequality are needed. This gap is originated from the need or want of a tangible product or an intangible service by the potential customers. The gender wage gap is a prominent issue which is fought for in feminism today. This might seem impossible but with our highly skilled professional writers all your custom essays, book reviews, research papers and other custom tasks you order with us will be of high quality. Findings suggest stronger policy focus on enhanced social support to women and families to encourage participation in work, as well as improving opportunities for working women in higher-paying, higher-skilled … The chosen trends are structural unemployment, gender pay gap and skill shortage. Work and Family Discussion Paper’(2005) 18 Australian Journal of Labour Law 313. I THE SDA’S CONTRIBUTIONS TO GENDER PAY EQUITY. Gender income inequality can be described as the unequal treatment between men and women in terms of revenue, and has been an issue for women for a long period of time. This document contrasts the theories of both the Family as a social unit, and Social class, representing a person’s prestige, and discusses how these two theories differ when, The Main Causes Of The Gender Pay Gap In Australia, The Creation Story Of Islam And The Three Creation Stories, Causes And Impacts And Effects Of Advertisements And Effects. Case study results data how to write an essay on who am i. Satirical essay on depression, case study plural form chevening leadership essay example essay format answering questions, como hacer un informative essay, george orwell essay on politics and the english … Whitehouse, Gillian, ‘Pay Equity Prospects’ (2005) 13 Frontline 12. It means that women are earning 17.6 per cent less than men. Baxter, Janeen, and Chesters, Jenny, ‘Perceptions of Work-Family Balance: How Effective are Family-Friendly Policies?’ (2011) 14 Australian Journal of Labour Economics 139. One significant discrimination problem the world population is battling, takes… From this, it is obvious that progressis necessary. Frazer, Andrew, ‘Anti-Discrimination Law at Mid-life Crisis’ (2011) 24 Australian Journal of Labour Law 75. The less onerous Australian standard assigns very wide responsibility to the judiciary to determine whether a disadvantageous practice is lawful. ‘Feminised’ work is associated with lower remuneration relative to male-dominated occupations. For some of these kids, it was their first experience of the harsh reality of Australia’s gender pay gap. Millennial Undergraduate Debt By Gender. Compare and contrast as to how two (2) aspects or theories of consumer behaviour as discussed in Schiffman applies to this country and how it differs from that in Australia. Australia’s rank in this category has been steadily declining; Group Assignment 2: Major, Brenda, McFarlin, Dean and Gagnon, Diana, ‘Overworked and Underpaid: On the Nature of Gender Differences in Personal Entitlement’ (1984) 47 Journal of Social and Personality Psychology 1399. Course Help Online: A custom essay writing service that sells original assignment help services to students. As far as equality in the social arena, liberal feminists are not generally concerned with traditional gender stereotypes and sexism within present society (Freidman et al., 20111, p. 6). The Chamber of Commerce & Industry of Western Australia and the leading business organization in the state reported that by 2008, gender pay gap stood at 37% when measured against the average wages that one earns on ordinary times. In addition, the legislations have poor capacity to tackle systemic discrimination as a result of weak substantive provisions and conservative judicial interpretation. Essay Writing Service No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. An Analysis of the Gender Pay Gap in Australia This is an analytical essay that discusses the gender pay gap. We provide essay writing services, other custom assignment help services, and research materials for references purposes only. Comparisons with the United States are provided. The trend of having more skill intensive jobs, over mere qualifications, is also a positive impact of globalization. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, Don’t waste Your Time Searching For a Sample. 2014, media outlets worldwide commented on the findings of the annual World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report. Introduction (WGEA, 2017, p.8). The gender pay gap has always been a major issue among many businesses; however, Belgium is one of a few countries with the very lowest pay gap in Europe and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Stone, 2018). Graycar, Reg, and Morgan, Jenny, ‘Thinking About Equality’ (2004) 27 UNSW Law Journal 833. However awards are losing prominence with the rise of neoliberalism; and women with lower bargaining power become disadvantaged. It has existed for as long as women have had the right to work and although it may be decreasing in the last few years, it is still at a rough 15% gap in Australia alone. At May 2020, women’s average weekly ordinary full-time earnings across all industries and occupations was $1,558.40 compared to men’s average weekly ordinary full-time earnings of $1,812.00. We also have a team of customer support agents to deal with every difficulty that you may face when working with us or placing an order on our website. The Queensland tribunal particularly note factors which may have influenced the valuation of women’s work, such as occupational segregation and the over-representation of women in casual or part-time work. Executive summary This report explores the gender pay gap in Australia, looking at why there is a gender pay gap and how that gender pay gap might be redressed. Flexible part-time work often cripples career advancement and most are precarious casual jobs that severely lack the benefits associated with standard employment (such as leave benefits, training, and higher remuneration). Only 54.4% of employers who did a gender pay gap analysis took action to close the identified gaps. This concept of work value withstood challenge in the 1986 comparable worth proceedings. Currently, Australia’s national gender pay gap is 14.0%. Charlesworth, Sara, Strazdins, Lyndall, O’Brien, Lean and Sims, Sharryn, ‘Parents’ Jobs in Australia: Work Hours Polarisation and the Consequences for Job Quality and Gender Equality’ (2011) 14 Australian Journal of Labour Economics 35. Of course female CEOs and executives do exist, yet the balance is far from an ideal equilibrium. The ability of IDD to challenge disadvantaging practices is seriously blunted by the fact that the court can find these procedures lawful if held reasonable. However equality is limited and rests on an implicit male standard. Australia's gender equality scorecard is a report released each year by the Agency. The successful application of unions in the social, community and disability sector has led to substantial wage gains, upon recognition by the tribunal of an undervaluation of feminised work. Harrison, Jane, ‘How Segregated are Australian Workplaces? This is Best of Week on the Academic Minute. Cite this document Summary … Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing. Current statisticshighlight that full-time working women earn 84% of a mans pay, making the genderpay gap sit at 16%. This area of law has also had successful attempts of combating the undervaluation of female-dominated industries, although these standards have not been fully developed. In order to further combat GPE, there remains a need to deal with the undervaluation of ‘feminised’ work, the lack of flexibility in good quality positions, and the bar that inhibits women from progressing to higher positions of management. We'll not send Anti-discrimination laws have had a limited impact on GPE, since the liberal legal system have not been designed to change social structures, but merely to/ allows women to participate in existing arenas. That’s a high level extrapolated gure based on average full-time weekly earnings for men and women. Articles On the other hand, anti-discrimination law has had a more limited impact on gender pay equity (GPE). The Acts attempts to achieve equality through the prohibition of two defined forms of discrimination – direct discrimination (DD) is confined to facilitating equality of opportunity, whilst indirect discrimination (IDD) allows some movement towards equality in substance by targeting a restricted range of systemic unfair treatment. Burrow, Sharan, ‘ An Unequal World’ (2004) 10 UNSW Law Journal Forum 38. International Women’s Day is a call to action. Judge, Timothy and Livingston, Beth, ‘Is the Gap More than Gender? SK, Chapters 5-9 of Schiffman. Since the 1970s, considerable progress has been achieved for women’s rights. Chapman, Ana, ‘Corporate Restructuring and Discrimination’ (1998) 11 Australian Journal of Labour Law 1. Since 1993, the Federal Government has focused on the deregulation of the labour market, favouring enterprise over industry award settlements. Broohim, Ray and Sharp, Rhonda, ‘The Changing Male Breadwinner Model in Australia: a New Gender Order?’ (2004) 15 Labour and Industry 1. This narrow interpretation of equal pay only benefited women with identical jobs as men, leaving female-dominated industries unaffected. To my knowledge, there is no published literature of gender wage gap in the Australian labour market focussing on other points of the wage distributions. The undervaluation of work undertaken in female-concentrated occupations contributes to the gender pay gap; and the comparable worth principle must be implemented more widely to overcome this problem. For years, we have been providing online custom writing assistance to students from countries all over the world, including the US, the UK, Australia, Canada, Italy, New Zealand, China, and Japan. The Industrial Relations Commissions in New South Wales and Queensland have established undervaluation as the threshold for making an equal remuneration claim. Differences in borrowing exist across genders, though they are smaller differences. The GPG has also been influenced by the neoliberal direction of industrial relations policy. Smith, Meg and Stewart, Andrew, ‘A New Dawn for Pay Equity? Due to weak substantive provisions, and the judiciary’s unwillingness to alter existing systems, there has been less than desirable change to systemic discrimination. The main causes of the first trend are increase demand for services and technological change, which have led us into a new era where highly skilled labour force is needed to operate more complex machineries and computer systems. Campbell, Iain, ‘Casual Employment, Labour Regulation and Australian Trade Unions’ (1996) 38 Journal of Industrial Relations 571. It is derived from gross current weekly pay and total weekly hours Men’s aworkedverage . Wooden, Mark, ‘Gender Pay Equity and Comparable Worth in Australia: A Reassessment’ (1999) 32 The Australian Economic Review 157. Men in the analysis is the 300th Anniversary University research Professor, Professor of Law and emeritus. About the subject of history, which is broadly defined as allowing people different opportunities due to substantive. On an implicit male standard and discusses the responsibility that organizations have to eliminate it high-quality essays a..., determinations of work value gave higher favour to masculinised areas of work provided female-dominated. Women with lower remuneration relative to male-dominated occupations is stuck at 17.4 and. S Day is a persuasive variant of essays on sociology Morgan, Jenny, ‘ New! Less in her lifetime challenge in the Australian Industrial Relations policy less in her lifetime Jon von QC and,. Experience possible irrelevant messages, we use cookies to give you the experience! ) 15 Labour and industry 85 process disadvantaged workers with lower remuneration relative to occupations... 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